Understanding students’ preferences toward the smart classroom learning environment: Development and validation of an instrument


This article presents the rationale for developing an instrument and initial evidence of validity and reliability in a higher education context. The 40-item instrument measures students’ preferences toward the smart classroom learning environment from eight constructs that are characteristic for this environment, including: Student Negotiation, Inquiry Learning, Reflective Thinking, Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Multiple Sources, Connectedness, and Functional Design. Data was purposely collected from a group of 462 college students enrolled in at least one smart classroom course during the time of this study. The results showed no difference in preferences between genders and concluded that the instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring college students’ preferences toward a smart classroom learning environment.


Smart classroom; Instrument development; Constructivism; Interactive learning environments; Higher education