This article reviews empirical research on applying the Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS) model to real educational settings, including computer-based learning approaches. This review focuses on three aspects: (1) how the ARCS model was applied to what specific educational settings; (2) what research methods were used; and (3) what outcomes were reported in these studies. Our findings indicate that the ARCS model was applied to a variety of countries and educational settings. The course component(s) in which the ARCS model was incorporated included single course component (e.g. course email), multiple course components, and other programs (e.g. specific software or game). Quantitative methods were used more than qualitative and mixed methods in these reviewed studies. Four major research outcomes were found in regard to participants’ affective domain, cognitive domain, learning behaviors, and psychological traits. We also summarized the studies in this review and provided future research directions. The latter includes applications of design-based research to educational problems that the ARCS model might address, especially in the context of computer-based learning.
Literature review; Motivation; The ARCS model