How Useful are our Models? Pre-Service and Practicing Teacher Evaluations of Technology Integration Models


We report on a survey of and wherein participants evaluated known models (e.g., , , , ) and provided insight on what makes a model valuable for them in the classroom. Results indicated that: (1) should be coupled with good theory to be effective, (2) classroom experience did not generally influence teacher values and beliefs related to technology integration, (3) some models may be more useful to teachers than others, (4) the widespread use of a model does not necessarily reflect usefulness, (5) useful models for teachers should engender real-world, concrete application, and (6) visual appeal of a model is largely subjective, but some visual representations might convey notions of practicality. Conclusions should be used to help researchers and practitioners understand the practical application value of technology integration models in real-world settings.


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Kimmons, R., & Hall, C. (2017). How useful are our models? pre-service and practicing teacher evaluations of technology integration models. Techtrends(4), 1-8.